Canning is a method of preserving food by heating it in temperatures that will kill microorganisms, and then cover it in jars or cans. The safest method to handle most foods is heat and high pressure. Commonly canned foods are vegetables, meat, seafood, milk, etc. The only foods that may be canned in a cooking water container (without high pressure) are foods with high acidity such as fruit, salted vegetables, or other acid-added foods. Foods that have been in the Canning process can last between one to five years, in certain circumstances can be longer. To prevent food from being spoiled before and during containment, a number of methods are used: pasteurization, boiling (and other high temperature applications over a period of time), refrigeration, freezing, drying, vacuum treatment, natural antimicrobial agents to preserved foods, in strong saline solutions, acids, bases, very extreme (eg very sweet) or microbiologically challenging environments.
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